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Research Process: A Step-By-Step Guide: Step 5: Cite Sources

This guide walks you through the steps of the research process.

Using Information Legally and Ethically

The legal and ethical issues surrounding the use of information goes beyond avoiding plagiarism and properly citing sources.

Researchers should be knowledgable about isses related to:

  • privacy
  • censorship
  • freedom of speech
  • intellectual property
  • copyright
  • fair use

What are Citations and Where Do They Go?

After you have identified and read through information from sources about your topic, you will need to take notes and create citations. Citations are references to the sources that you use when you are developing and writing your paper.

Citations give credit to the authors of the information and ideas you are referring to in your paper and also allow your reader to locate your sources to find out more about your topic.

Citations are alphabetically arranged in a bibliography at the end of your paper. A bibliography is simply a list of all the sources you have used in the process of conducting research for your paper.

There are also in-text citations, such as footnotes and parentheticals, which alert readers to cited material in the body of your paper and tell them exactly where to go to find them. These citations work in conjunction with a bibliography.

Understanding Citations Tutorial

Work through the University of Texas at Austin's Understanding Citations Tutorial to learn how to identify the elements of citations, distinguish between citations for different library resources, and to find library resources from citations.

A Brief Introduction to Citations

From North Carolina State University:

Why Cite Your Sources?

From Ohio University Libraries: