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Citation Styles Guide

Chicago Style Citations

Use these tabs to locate the type of source you are citing.

 

For more information about Chicago Style see:

Books in Print

Physical books you can hold in your hands.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City, State (or Country) of Publisher: Publisher’s Name, Copyright Year.

 

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

 

Footnote:

1 Author First and Last Name, Title of Book (City, State (or Country) of Publisher: Publisher’s Name, Copyright Year), Page.

 

1 Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 34.

 

Shortened Footnote (for subsequent citations):

2 Author Last Name, Title of Book abbreviated to no more than four words, Page.

 

2 Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma, 34.


 

Books in Databases

Often referred to as eBooks or electronic books, books in databases require the use of a computer device to read and are found in a subscription database, most often a library database.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City, State (or Country) of Publisher: Publisher’s Name, Copyright Year. URL or Database Name if URL is unstable and/or extremely long).

 

A book in a database with a stable URL:

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006. http://nmh.axis360.baker-taylor.com/Title?itemId=0017159368&includeRecommendable=false.

 

A book in a database with an unstable or long URL:

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006. Axis360.

 

 

Books in Websites

Often referred to as eBooks or electronic books, books in websites require the use of a computer device to read and are found on the Internet.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City, State (or Country) of publisher: Publisher’s Name, Copyright Year. URL.


Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006. https://books.google.com/books?id=QZ1D4Q8uZuoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=michael+pollan.

Reference Sources in Print

Physical encyclopedias, dictionaries, and atlases that you can hold in your hands.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article/Entry.” In Title of Reference Book, Contributor(s), Pages. Edition ed. Vol. #, Series Name #. City, State (or Country) of Publisher: Publisher’s Name, Copyright Year.

 

Freedman, Bill, Laurie Duncan, and K. Lee Lerner. Global Warming.” In The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by K.  Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 12-16. 5th ed. Vol. 4. Views in Science. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2014.

 

Footnote:

1 Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article/Entry,” in Title of Reference Book, Contributor(s), Edition ed., Series Name # (City, State (or Country) of Publisher: Publisher’s Name, Copyright Year), Vol. #:Page.  

 

1 Bill Freedman, Laurie Duncan, and K. Lee Lerner, "Global Warming," in The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 5th ed., Views in Science (Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2014), 4:Page.

 

Shortened Footnote (for subsequent citations):

2 Author Last Name, "Article Title abbreviated to no more than four words," in Title of Reference Book, Vol. #:Page.

 

2 Freedman, Duncan, and Lerner, "Global Warming," in The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, Vol. #:Page.

 

Reference Sources in Databases

Often referred to as eBooks or electronic books, these encyclopedias, dictionaries, and atlases require the use of a computer device to read and are found in a subscription database, most often in a library database.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article/Entry.” In Title of Reference Book, Contributor(s), Pages, Edition ed. Vol. #, Series Name #. City, State (or Country) of Publisher: Publisher’s Name, Copyright Year. URL or Database Name if URL is unstable and/or extremely long.

 

A book in a database with a stable URL:

Freedman, Bill, Laurie Duncan, and K. Lee Lerner. Global Warming.” In The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by K.  Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 12-16. 5th ed. Vol. 4. Views in Science. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2014.

http://libraries.state.ma.us/login?gwurl=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=GVRL&sw=w&u=mlin_w_nthfield&v=2.1&it=r&id=GALE%7CCX3727801117&asid=979f099120bbdb02e777841421d50cdc.

 

A book in a database with an unstable or long URL:

Freedman, Bill, Laurie Duncan, and K. Lee Lerner. Global Warming.” In The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by K.  Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 12-16. 5th ed. Vol. 4. Views in Science. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2014. Gale Virtual Reference Library.

 

Reference Sources in Websites

Often referred to as eBooks or electronic books, these encyclopedias, dictionaries, and atlases require the use of a computer device to read and are found on the Internet.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article/Entry.” In Title of Reference Book, Contributor(s), Pages, Edition ed. Vol. #, Series Name #. City, State (or Country) of Publisher: Publisher’s Name, Copyright Year. URL.

 

Freedman, Bill, Laurie Duncan, and K. Lee Lerner. Global Warming.” In The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by K.  Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 12-16. 5th ed. Vol. 4. Views in Science. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2014. https://books.google.com/books?id=cjHCoMQNkcgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=encyclopedia.

Newspapers in Print

Printed publications (usually issued daily or weekly) consisting of folded unstapled sheets and containing news, feature articles, advertisements, and correspondence.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Newspaper (City, State), Publication Date.

 

Stager, Curt. What the Muck of Walden Pond Tells Us about Our Planet.” The New York Times, January 7, 2017.

 

Footnote:

1 Author First and Last Name, Article Title,” Title of Newspaper (City, State), Publication Date.

 

1 Curt Stager, "What the Muck of Walden Pond Tells Us about Our Planet," The New York Times, January 7, 2017.

 

Shortened Footnote (for subsequent citations):

2 Author Last Name, "Article Title abbreviated to no more than four words."

 

2 Stager, "What the Muck."

 

Newspapers in Databases

These newspaper articles require the use of a computer device to read and are found in a subscription database, most often in a library database.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. Article Title.” Title of Newspaper (City, State), Publication Date. URL or Database Name if URL is unstable and/or extremely long.

 

A newspaper article in a database with a stable URL:

Stager, Curt. What the Muck of Walden Pond Tells Us about Our Planet.” The New York Times, January 7, 2017. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1856440027/A0A2C78E70564AD7PQ/1?accountid=5771.

 

A newspaper article in a database with an unstable or long URL:

Stager, Curt. What the Muck of Walden Pond Tells Us about Our Planet.” The New York Times, January 7, 2017. ProQuest.

 

Newspapers in Websites

These newspaper articles require the use of a computer device to read and are found on the Internet.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Newspaper (City, State), Publication Date. URL.

 

Stager, Curt.What the Muck of Walden Pond Tells Us about Our Planet.” The New York Times, January 7, 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/07/opinion/sunday/what-the-muck-of-walden-pond-tells-us-about-our-planet.html.

Magazines in Print

Printed publications (usually issued weekly or monthly) containing articles and illustrations, typically covering a particular subject of area of interest.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Magazine, Publication Date, Pages.

 

Hemingway, Mark. "Change in the Legal Climate." The Weekly Standard, December 5, 2016, 8-12.

 

Footnote:

1 Author First and Last Name, “Article Title,” Title of Magazine, Publication Date, Page.

 

1 Mark Hemingway "Change in the Legal Climate," The Weekly Standard, December 5, 2016, 8.

 

Shortened Footnote (for subsequent citations):

2 Author Last Name, "Article Title abbreviated to no more than four words," Page.

 

2 Hemingway, "Change in the Legal Climate," 8.

 

Magazines in Databases

These magazine articles require the use of a computer device to read and are found in a subscription database, most often in a library database.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Newspaper (City, State), Publication Date, Pages. URL or Database Name if URL is unstable and/or extremely long.

 

A newspaper article in a database with a stable URL:

Hemingway, Mark. "Change in the Legal Climate." The Weekly Standard, December 5, 2016, 8-12. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1845924498?accountid=5771.

 

A newspaper article in a database with an unstable or long URL:

Hemingway, Mark. "Change in the Legal Climate." The Weekly Standard, December 5, 2016, 8-12. ProQuest.

 

Magazines in Websites

These magazine articles require the use of a computer device to read and are found on the Internet.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Magazine, Publication Date, Pages. URL.

 

Hemingway, Mark. "Change in the Legal Climate." The Weekly Standard, December 5, 2016, 8-12. http://www.weeklystandard.com/change-in-the-legal-climate/article/2005520.

 

Journals in Print

Printed publications (usually issued monthly, bimonthly or quarterly) containing articles in which scholarship relating to a particular discipline is published. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Journal Volume, Issue (Month Year): Pages.

 

Ramberg, Bennett. "The Precedents for Withdrawal: From Vietnam to Iraq." Foreign Affairs 88, no. 2 (March/April 2009): 2-10.

 

Full Footnote:

1 Author First and Last Name, “Article Title,” Title of Journal Volume, Issue (Month Year): Page.

 

1 Bennett Ramberg, "The Precedents for Withdrawal: From Vietnam to Iraq," Foreign Affairs 88, no. 2 (March/April 2009): 5.

Shortened Footnote (for subsequent citations):

2 Author Last Name, "Article Title abbreviated to no more than four words," Page.

 

2 Ramberg, "The Precedents for Withdrawal," 5.

 

Journals in Databases

These journal articles require the use of a computer device to read and are found in a subscription database, most often in a library database.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Journal Volume, Issue (Month Year): Pages. URL or Database Name if URL is unstable and/or extremely long.

 

A journal article in a database with a stable URL:

Ramberg, Bennett. "The Precedents for Withdrawal: From Vietnam to Iraq." Foreign Affairs 88, no. 2 (March/April 2009): 2-10. http://search.proquest.com/docview/1845924498?accountid=5771.

 

A journal article in a database with an unstable or long URL:

Ramberg, Bennett. "The Precedents for Withdrawal: From Vietnam to Iraq." Foreign Affairs 88, no. 2 (March/April 2009): 2-10. ProQuest.

 

Journals in Websites

These journal articles require the use of a computer device to read and are found on the Internet.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Title of Journal Volume, Issue (Month Year): Pages. URL.

 

Ramberg, Bennett. "The Precedents for Withdrawal: From Vietnam to Iraq." Foreign Affairs 88, no. 2 (March/April 2009): 2-10. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/somalia/2009-03-01/precedents-withdrawal.

Films in DVD format

Full-length feature films or movies that are on a DVD.

 

Bibliography:

Title of Film. Contributor(s). Year of Film’s Original Release. City, State (or Country) of Studio/Distributor: Studio/Distributor. Year of Release on DVD. Medium.

 

Joe Versus the Volcano. Directed by John Patrick Shanley. 1990. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002. DVD.

 

Footnote:

1 Title of Film, Contributor(s), Year of Film’s Original Release (City, State (or Country) of Studio/Distributor: Studio/Distributor, Year of Release on DVD), Medium.

 

1 Joe Versus the Volcano, Directed by John Patrick Shanley, 1990 (Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2002), DVD.

 

Shortened Footnote (for subsequent citations):

2 Title of Film abbreviated to no more than four words.

 

2 Joe Versus the Volcano.

 

Video in Websites

Video clips that are found in subscription databases such as Netflix or on websites such as YouTube.

 

A full-length film in a subscription website such as Netflix:

Title of Film. Contributor(s). Studio/Distributor, Year of Film’s Release. URL.

 

13th. Directed by Ava DuVernay. Netflix, 2016. https://www.netflix.com/title/80091741.

 

A video clip on a website such as YouTube:

Video Clip Title.” File Type video, MM:SS. Name of Website. Posted by Poster(s), Date Posted. URL.


13th | Official Trailer.” Video file, 2:19. YouTube. Posted by Netflix U.S. and Canada, September 26, 2016. https://youtu.be/V66F3WU2CKk.

Web Pages in Websites

A document that can be displayed in a web browser, such as Google Chrome.

 

Bibliography:

Author Last Name, First Name or Publisher if there is no author. “Webpage Title.” Name of Website. Last Modified Date. URL.

 

Town of Montague. "Village of Turners Falls." Town of Montague Massachusetts. Last modified January 1, 2017. http://www.montague.net/pages/MontagueMA_WebDocs/Turners.

 

Full Footnote:

1 Author Last Name or Publisher if there is no author, “Webpage Title,” Name of Website, Last Modified Date, URL.

 

1 Town of Montague, "Village of Turners Falls," Town of Montague Massachusetts, Last modified January 1, 2017, http://www.montague.net/pages/MontagueMA_WebDocs/Turners.

Shortened Footnote (for subsequent citations):

2 Author Last Name, "Article Title abbreviated to no more than four words."

 

2 Town of Montague, "Village of Turners Falls."

Formatting Your Chicago Style Paper

 

General Format

  • Use Times New Roman 12pt font

  • Set margins at 1" for all sides of your 8.5 x 11 inch paper

  • Double space (2.0) with the exception of block quotations which are single spaced

 

Page Numbers

  • Insert in the upper right-hand corner of all pages except the title page

 

 

 

Click on the image to enlarge

 

Title Page

  • Center your title a third of the way down the page

  • Center your name, class information, teacher’s name, and date two-thirds of the way down the page

  • Do not add a page number to your title page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Click on the image to enlarge

 

Bibliography Format

  • Bibliographic citations are arranged in alphabetical order by author’s last name or, when there is no author, the article or book title

Bibliography Title

  • Title the page "Bibliography" and center it on the page

  • Do not underline, bold or italicize

  • Leave two space between "Bibliography" and first citation

Indentation

  • First line of each citation should be flushed with left margin

  • Indent remaining lines within a single citation - this is called a hanging indent

  • Bibliographic citations should be single spaced within the citation

  • An extra space needs to be inserted between each citation

 

Click on the image to enlarge

 

Footnotes

 

  • Include footnotes for all quotes and paraphrases - any idea that is not your own

  • Use NoodleTools to help you create footnotes for your citations

  • Superscript footnote numbers and place them after all grammatical punctuation. Footnotes can be added in GoogleDocs by choosing Insert > Footnote

  • Footnote citations should be single spaced within the citation in 10pt font at the bottom of the page

  • An extra space needs to be inserted between each footnote citation

  • Use shortform footnotes when citing a source already footnoted in the paper. In general, shortform notes include the author’s last name, the title of the work abbreviated to no more than four words, and the page number, all separated by commas, for example: Zaehner, Hinduism, 28.

 

Click on the image to enlarge